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Turkey’s Politic System from 1920 to 2018
Turkey has a political system based on the principle of separation of powers. The principle of tripartite separation of force, consisting of “legislative”, “executive” and “judicial” powers, is the base of politics of Turkey. Turkey’s leader has taken the title of Cumhurbaşkanı (President) since the declaration of the Republic in 1923.
Turkey had a parliamentary system until 2018. Grand National Assembly of Turkey had 550 delegates and the political party which had the most of the delegates had the power to create the government. There have been some important changes in Turkey’s political landscape since 2018.
2017 Turkish constitutional referendum
The government led by the current president of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan offered some changes in Turkey’s political system and these offers led to a constitutional referendum that took place in 2017. Results were in favor of the change with a 51.41% acceptance rate. Changes created a new political system in Turkey called ‘’Turkish Presidental System’’. Let me tell you more about our new system.
Turkish Presidential System since 2018
The new Presidential system started in Turkey after the 2018 Turkish presidential election. There have been some fundamental and some minor changes compared to the older political system in Turkey.
Turkey still has Grand National Assembly but in the older system head of the government was elected from the 550 delegates in the assembly. Now we have 600 delegates in the assembly representing 81 cities in Turkey. But now following delegate election we hold an additional election to choose the president of Turkey. President in Turkey before was elected by the delegates but now it is elected by the people of Turkey.
President in the earlier system had a symbolic seat and power on the state. Assembly always had the power to out rule him. Maybe we can compare the old Turkish presidency with the English Queen or German President. The new president is more powerful and can be considered the ultimate decision-maker in Turkey whose power is still but less harnessed by the assembly.
President is elected every five years and a president can be elected up to two consecutive terms. Anyone who is over 40 years old and holding a bachelor’s degree can be nominated.
Ministries in Turkey
Council of Ministers holds the executive power. Ministers are chosen by the president and they don’t have to be members of Parliament. There are 16 ministries in Turkey.
- Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
- Ministry of Culture and Tourism
- Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
- Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning
- Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services
- Ministry of Finance and Treasury
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Ministry of Health
- Ministry of Industry and Technology
- Ministry of the Interior
- Ministry of Justice
- Ministry of National Defense
- Ministry of National Education
- Ministry of Trade
- Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure
- Ministry of Youth and Sports
Parliamentary and Local Elections in Turkey
Every four years people of Turkey vote for 600 delegates representing us in the Grand Assembly of Turkey and also we vote for the local mayors who are responsible for the districts which we live in. Universal suffrage is very well established in Turkey. Anyone who is over 18 years old can vote. Constitution protects our right of voting regardless of our gender, income, social status, race, ethnicity, wealth or any other restriction.
List of the Major Political Parties in Turkey
Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi)
The party was established in 2001 is a conservative, center-right party. The current leader is President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
Republican People’s Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi)
This party is the oldest political party in Turkey founded in 1923 which makes it as old as the Turkish Republic. The current leader is Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu.
Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu was elected as the chairman of CHP again on 25th of July in 2020. *
Nationalist Movement Party (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi)
MHP is on the right of the political spectrum. Party was founded in 1969. The current leader is Devlet Bahçeli.
The Good Party (İYİ Party)
İYİ Party is an offshoot of the Nationalist Movement Party. It was formed in 2017. The current leader is Meral Akşener.
İYİ Party held its second ordinary party congress on 20th of September 2020 and reelected Akşener as the party’s general secretary.
Peoples’ Democratic Party (Halkların Demokratik Partisi)
HDP has social democrat values combined with a left-wing approach. Different from many this party has two leaders. They are Sezai Temelli and Pervin Buldan.