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The Gallipoli campaign War, also known as ”The Battle of Gallipoli”, started on 19 February 1915 and ended on 9 January 1916. The Gallipoli campaign, which took place during the First World War, was fought in two stages as sea and land wars. The Gallipoli campaign, which ended with the victory of the Ottoman Empire against England and France, is one of the most important events in Turkish and world history.
The purpose of the Gallipoli campaign pushing the Ottoman Empire out of the first world war. If the Sultan in Istanbul is captured, it would be possible for Russia to strengthen and gain an important advantage over Germany and Austria. Delivering military and logistical aid to Russia through the strait of Gallipoli was an important matter. Moreover, according to the plans, this advantage will significantly decrease the course of the first world war, as it will also reduce German pressure on France.
Outline of the Gallipoli Battle
Sea Wars, the first part of the Çanakkale Wars, started on February 19, 1915. British and French navies started bombardment. The major attack started on March 18, 1915. However, this first naval attack resulted in an unexpected defeat for the British and the French, thanks to both the accurate cannon shots of the Ottoman army and the mines laid in the straits by the Nusret Mine Ship.
This defeat was not enough to discourage the Allied army. Troops were brought from the British colonial territory and mostly formed by the ANZACs (The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) took action on land on April 25, 1915. An intense trench war started for months in Çanakkale. The war took much longer than expected. Attackers and defenders lost hundreds of thousands of soldiers. The continuation of the war has become very difficult for the Entente states. Entente leaders could not get what they wanted from this war and had to retreat in 1916. The Canakkale Wars resulted in the victory of the Ottoman army.
Legacies of The Battle of Gallipoli
Rise of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Perhaps the most important result of the victory is the rise of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The founder of our republic, the leader of the Turkish Revolution and the leader of the National War against the occupiers, Mustafa Kemal gained great charisma in the eyes of fellow soldiers and the Turkish people thank to his success in the Battle of Canakkale. He became famous as “The Man Who Saved Istanbul”.
The Bolshevik Revolution
Another important result of the Canakkale Victory was the Allies’ inability to reach Russia through the straits. Thus, the internal turmoil in Russia increased gradually and the Bolshevik Revolution broke out and Russia got out of the war.
Australia and New Zealand Emergence as Independent States
Countries of Australia and New Zealand today refers the Gallipoli campaing as “baptism of fire”. Both nations lost thousands of young man during the war. The emergence of a unique national identity following the war occurred in the both countries.
Churchill Gets Demoted
Churchill was demoted from First Lord of the Admiralty as a direct result of the great losses Allies had received in Gallipoli Campaign.
Dawn Rite in Gallipoli
The Çanakkale Wars has significant meanings for the grandchildren of ANZACs. The Battle of Canakkale is considered the beginning of the national consciousness of Australia and New Zealand. April 25 is known as a national day called “Anzac Day” in these countries. Australians and New Zealanders come to Anzac Cove in Çanakkale and hold a ceremony called “Dawn Rite” or ‘’Gallipoli Anzac Day Service’’.
Tours to Gallipoli and ANZAC Cove
It is a very emotional experience to see trenches and war zones of Gallipoli. Knowing this beautiful landscape was the main setting of one of the worst atrocities in human history is shocking. I recommend visiting the war museum in Gallipoli to see bullets which were welded by crashing against each other. This can give you an idea about the intensity of the war. You can always write to me if you have questions about Gallipoli and the First World war. You can book a tour or hire a professional licensed tour guide to Gallipoli by contacting me. I believe Canakkale is a place you should see with a tour guide. See you soon, Hasan Gülday.