Chronology of the Ottoman Empire; Important Events, Wars, Treaties and Sultans

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Chronology of the Ottoman Empire; Important Events, Wars, Treaties and Sultans

From the beginning of the Ottoman Empire to the empire; I have compiled chronologically the important wars, treaties, political and cultural events of the 600-year period from the beginning of to the empire to its collapse.

The Ottoman Empire, which ruled over 3 continents for more than 6 centuries, caused the end of many other states, and gave birth to many states in its last years, deeply affected the history of the world in political, cultural, social and economic aspects. During these 600 years, wars, treaties, construction of monumental structures, administrative changes, many important events took place. Let’s have a look at the chronology of the Ottoman Empire.

Seal of the Ottoman Emperor
Seal of the Ottoman Emperor
  • The victory of Koyunhisar (Bapheus) War and the establishment of the Ottoman Principality. The era of Osman the First (1299 – 1324)
  • Conquest of Bursa. The first capital of the Ottoman Empire. The first Ottoman coin was minted. Conquest of Iznik (Nicaea). The joining of the Karesi Principality to the Ottoman Empire. The era of Orhan the First (1326 – 1360)
  • Conquest of Edirne. Janissary barracks were established. Conquest of Plovdiv. Conquest of Sofia. The era of Murat the First (1362 – 1389)
  • Istanbul was besieged for the first time and in total of four times during this era. Aydınoğulları, Saruhan, Germiyan and Menteşe principalities joined into the Ottoman Empire. Thessaly and Thessaloniki were conquered. Battle of Ankara happened between Ottomans and Timurid (Mongolian) Empires. The era of Yıldırım Beyazit (1389 – 1402)
  • Conquest of Izmir (Smyrna). Construction of the Green Mosque in Bursa. The era of Çelebi Mehmed (1413 – 1421)
  • The Edirne – Szeged Agreement, which was the first peace agreement signed by the Ottoman Empire, was signed with the Hungarian Kingdom. The lands of the Germiyanoğlu Principality joined the Ottoman Empire. The era of Murat the Second (1421 – 1451)
  • With the construction of Anadolu Fortress, the Bosporus crossings were completely under control. Conquest of Istanbul in 1453. The Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) collapsed after 1058 years. Conquest of Crimea. The seizure of the fortress Otranto in the south of Italy. The era of Mehmed the Second who is also known as Mehmet the Conquerer (1451 – 1481)
  • The great Istanbul earthquake of 1509, known as the Little Apocalypse, took place. The Black Sea has completely become a Turkish Lake. The era of Beyazıd the Second (1481- 1512)
  • The Mamluks were defeated, and all Egypt came under Ottoman rule. After this first victory, the caliphate passed to the Ottoman Empire and the Sacred Relics began to be moved to Istanbul. Piri Reis drew the famous World Map. The era of Selim the Resolute (1512 – 1520)
  • Piri Reis drew the Second World map showing the shores of America. The Ottoman Navy in the area of Hayreddin Barbarossa Pasha defeated the Crusader Fleet under the command of Andrea Doria. Mediterranean Sea became a Turkish Lake. Capitulations, which would be a great problem for the Ottoman Empire later, were given to the French Empire. The era of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 – 1566)
  • Conquest of Cyprus. Selimiye Mosque and Complex was built by Mimar Sinan who was the most famous architect of the Ottoman Empire. Ottomans were defeated during the Inebahti Naval Battle. The era of Selim the Third (1566 – 1574)
  • Morocco was captured and attached to the Ottoman Empire. With the Ferhat Pasha Treaty, the Ottoman Empire reached its widest borders in the east. The construction of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul. With the Treaty of Zuhab, the Iranian border takes its current form. Conquest of Crete Island. With the Treaty of Buchach, the Ottoman Empire reached its widest borders in the west. The second siege of Vienna resulted in the defeat of the Ottoman state. The eras of Murat the Third, Ahmed the Second, Murad the fourth, Mehmed the Fourth between 1574 – 1687
  • Ottoman – Russian War and Pruth Treaty. Ottoman, Austrian, Venetian War and Passarowitz Treaty. İbrahim Müteferrika established the first printing house in the capital Istanbul. The Tulip Age, known as the age of pleasure and pleasure, took place in this period. The era of Ahmed the Third (1703 – 1730)
  • Following the Küçük Kaynarca Treaty, the Ottoman Empire paid war compensation for the first time. After the Istanbul fires in 1780, thousands of buildings were destroyed. The most important development in this period is that the caputulations previously given to France were given to the Russian Empire. The era of Abdulhamid the First (1774 – 1789)
  • Ottoman – Russian War resulted with the Treaty of Bucharest. In 1826, the Janissary Barracks, which lost its reputation and became undisciplined, was abolished. The Edirne Treaty was signed and the independence of Greece was accepted. The Balta Liman Treaty was signed with England. This treaty put the Ottoman economy and industry in a difficult situation. Era of Mahmud the Second (1808 – 1839)
  • In 1839, the Imperial Edict of Reorganization was declared, which included many legal, military and administrative reforms for the aging Ottoman Empire. Dolmabahçe Palace was built and started to be used by the Ottoman Royal Family. The entire Ottoman Fleet in Sinop was destroyed by the Russian Navy in the Sinop raid. The Crimean War ended against the Ottomans, and the Treaty of Paris was signed at the end of the war. The Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856 was declared, which gave important rights to non-Muslims. Era of Abdulmecid (1839 – 1861)
  • In 1876, the First Constitutional Era was declared. At the end of the Ottoman-Russian War, Ayastefanos and Berlin agreements were signed. Romania, Serbia and Montenegro became independent states. Kars, Ardahan and Batumi were given to the Russian Empire. With the Cyprus Treaty, Cyprus was left to the British Empire. In 1881, Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK, who would later become the founder of the Turkish Republic, was born. The Second Constitutional Era was declared in 1908. Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The era of Abdulhamid the Second (1876 – 1909)
  • Libya, the last African land left in the hands of the Ottoman Empire, was left to the Italians after the Tripoli War and the Ushi Treaty. The First and Second Balkan Wars were fought between Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia and Montenegro and the Ottomans. The Ottoman Empire entered World War I with Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria. At the end of the war, the Ottoman Empire was defeated and Anatolia was occupied. The era of Mehmed Reşad the Fifth (1909 – 1918)
Map of the Ottoman Empire

Hasan Gülday

Hasan Gülday. Professional licensed tour guide working in Turkey.

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