There had been two Mesopotamia provinces of Roman Empire. The first one created by Emperor Trajan was a very short-lived province and the second Mesopotamia was the extended province created by emperor Septimius Severus.
Roman province of Mesopotamia used to occupy areas of modern Iraq, Turkey, Syria and Kuwait. Nisibis, today’s Turkish city of Nusaybin, became the capital of the province.
Mesopotamia had always been a disputed area and war zone being located on the Persian border. Province became safer thanks to the Roman gains on the east and especially following the creation of Assyria province.