Ottoman Sultans

Osman the First

Ottoman Sultans ruled a vast empire for more than half a millennia. There were 36 Sultans during the life of the Ottoman dynasty. Fist Sultan ”Osman the first” started his principality in today’s Bursa city in the 1300s. Ottoman state grew into a regional power in the 1400s. Ottomans became an Empire and world power in the 1500s. Sultans moved their capital city several times during history. Ottoman capital cities were Söğüt (1299–1326), Bursa (1326–1365), Edirne (1365–1453), Istanbul (1453–1922).

Life and Succession in Ottoman Dynasty

Ottoman princes were born in the harem of their fathers. There could be only one Sultan at a time. Every male born into the Ottoman dynasty had the right to become Sultan. There was bloodshed and tragedy when a new Sultan had to be throned. The survival of the fittest was the main idea in Ottoman succession. Fratricide was common and mostly one prince executed all his brothers till he becomes the only one with the right to sit on the Ottoman throne.


Ottoman Caliphate

The last Sunni Islamic caliphate was the Ottoman royal family. Ottoman Sultans gained caliphal power at 1517 after uniting most of the Islamic world under their rule and becoming rulers of the most importan Muslim cities. These cities were Mecca and Medina which had to be visited by every Muslim in the world for their pilgrimage duty. Caliphal position of the Ottoman Sultans were revoked by the new Turkish Republic in 1924.


Which countries were ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty?

Greatest borders Ottomans ever achieved

Ottoman dynasty ruled many countries of the world for a long time. These countries were Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Egypt, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Arabia, parts of North Africa.


What happened to Ottoman Dynasty?

Ottoman Empire and Ottoman Dynasty were officially ended in 1922. Turkey has declared itself as a republic in 1923 and showed no interest in Ottoman Dynasty anymore. Furthermore the last Ottoman Sultan Mehmet the sixth was deported by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.


List of Ottoman Sultans

Osman I c. 1300–24
Orhan 1324–60
Murad I 1360–89
Bayezid I 1389–1402
Mehmed I 1413–21
Murad II 1421–44
Mehmed II 1444–46
Murad II (second reign) 1446–51
Mehmed II (second reign) 1451–81
Bayezid II 1481–1512
Selim I 1512–20
Süleyman I 1520–66
Selim II 1566–74
Murad III 1574–95
Mehmed III 1595–1603
Ahmed I 1603–17
Mustafa I 1617–18
Osman II 1618–22
Mustafa I (second reign) 1622–23
Murad IV 1623–40
İbrahim 1640–48
Mehmed IV 1648–87
Süleyman II 1687–91
Ahmed II 1691–95
Mustafa II 1695–1703
Ahmed III 1703–30
Mahmud I 1730–54
Osman III 1754–57
Mustafa III 1757–74
Abdülhamid I 1774–89
Selim III 1789–1807
Mustafa IV 1807–08
Mahmud II 1808–39
Abdülmecid I 1839–61
Abdülaziz 1861–76
Murad V 1876
Abdülhamid II 1876–1909
Mehmed V 1909–18
Mehmed VI 1918–22*


Visiting Istanbul is the best way of learning more about the Ottoman Dynasty. Istanbul hosts royal palaces of Ottomans such as Topkapi Palace, Harem in Topkapi, Dolmabahce Palace, and many more. Contact me or hire a professional Turkish tour guide in Istanbul to learn more about Ottomans. See you soon, Hasan Gülday.

*Courtesy of Brittanica

Hasan Gülday

Hasan Gülday. Professional licensed tour guide working in Turkey.

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