Cilicia province of the Roman Empire was located on today’s Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The Province held great importance since it was the gateway to the Eastern lands.
Cilicia was the nesting ground of Cilician pirates. The Roman Empire wanted to establish full control on Anatolia or Asia Minor, so they wanted to occupy Cilicia after the Third Mithridatic War. Pompey occupied and annexed Cilicia into the Roman Empire in the year 64 BC.
Tarsus city of today’s Turkey was the capital of Cilicia province. Tarsus was the birthplace of the Apostle Paul, making the city and important early Christian center.
Cilicia stayed as it is during the split of the Roman Empire and survived as an Byzantine province till the attack and occupation of the Umayyad Caliphate on the 8th century.